Immanuel Kant

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Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) foi um filósofo alemão, fundador da “Filosofia Crítica”. Dedicou-se em resolver a confusão conceitual a respeito do debate acerca da natureza do nosso conhecimento. Procurou explicar como é o funcionamento do mecanismo de apreensão e de compreensão da realidade que permite ao Homem saber-se inserido em um Universo.
Immanuel Kant nasceu em Königsberg, na Prússia Oriental, então Império Alemão no dia 22 de abril de 1724. Filho de um artesão de descendência escocesa era o quarto de nove filhos. Passou grande parte de sua vida nos arredores de sua cidade natal. Dos pais luteranos recebeu uma severa educação religiosa. Na escola local estudou latim e línguas clássicas. Em 1740, com 16 anos ingressou na Universidade de Königsberg, onde estudou com o filósofo Martin Knutzen e se aprofundou no estudo da filosofia racionalista de Leibniz e de Christian Wolff. Despertou também o interesse pela Ciência Natural, em particular pelos estudos de Newton.
Em 1746, após a morte do pai, Kant se viu obrigado a deixar a universidade e passou a dar aula particular para ajudar no sustento da família. Mesmo fora da universidade não parou de estudar e dedicou-se à publicação de sua primeira obra filosófica, “Pensamento Sobre o Verdadeiro Valor das Forças Vivas” (1749). Em 1754 retornou à universidade e após concluir o doutorado foi nomeado professor universitário. Lecionou Filosofia Moral, Lógica e Metafísica. Publicou diversas obras na área das Ciências Naturais e da física, entre elas, “História Universal da Natureza do Céu” (1755).
Em seu dia a dia em Königsberg, Immanuel Kant mantinha hábitos de vida bastante rígidos, o que o fez se tornar um paradigma de existência metódica e rotineira. Conta-se que o seu costume de dar um passeio vespertino e diário com seu cão leva os vizinhos a acertarem os relógios sempre que ele passava. O único dia em que Kant não saiu para o seu rotineiro passeio, pois estava absolvido com a leitura de (Emílio, ou Da Educação, 1762), de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, despertou a atenção e curiosidade de seus vizinhos.
A Filosofia de Kant

O pensamento de Immanuel Kant se distingue por um período inicial denominado “pré-crítico”, caracterizado por seu apego à metafísica racionalista de Wolff e seu interesse pela física de Newton. No início de 1760, influenciado pela filosofia do filósofo inglês David Hume, começou a dar forma à tese central de sua filosofia. Em 1770, depois de obter a cátedra, transcorreram 10 anos de silêncio, durante os quais se dedicou ao trabalho de construir sua “Filosofia Crítica”, ao entrar em contato com o empirismo cético do filósofo inglês, David Hume, que lhe permitiu, segundo suas próprias palavras, “despertar de um sonho dogmático”.
Em 1781 teve início o segundo período da obra Kantiana, com a publicação de, “Crítica da Razão Pura”. Na obra, Kant tratou de fundamentar o conhecimento humano e fixar seus limites. Diante da questão, “Qual é o verdadeiro valor dos nossos conhecimentos?” Kant colocou a razão num tribunal para julgar o que pode ser conhecido legitimamente e que tipo de conhecimento não tem fundamento. Com isso pretendia superar a dicotomia racionalismo-empirismo.
Kant condenava os empiristas (tudo que conhecemos vem dos sentidos) e, não concordava com os racionalistas (é errado julgar que tudo que pensamos vem de nós): o conhecimento deve constar de juízos universais, da mesma maneira que deriva da experiência sensível. Para sustentar essa contradição, Kant explica que o conhecimento é constituído de matéria e forma. “A matéria dos nossos conhecimentos são as próprias coisas e a forma somos nós mesmos”.
O pensamento kantiano é conhecido como idealismo transcendental, que significa aquilo que é anterior a toda experiência. “Chamo transcendental todo conhecimento que trata, não tanto dos objetos, como, de modo geral, de nossos conceitos a priori dos objetos”. Seus pensamentos formaram as bases para a teoria do conhecimento como disciplina filosófica, criando uma obra sistemática cuja influência marcou a filosofia posterior.
Immanuel Kant faleceu em Königsberg, Alemanha, no dia 12 de fevereiro de 1804.
Obras de Immanuel Kant

Pensamento Sobre Verdadeiro Valor das Forças Vivas (1749)
História Universal da Natureza e Teoria do Céu (1755)
O Único Argumento Possível da Existência de Deus (1763)
Observação Sobre o Sentimento do Belo e do Sublime (1764)
Crítica da Razão Pura (1781)
Iluminismo Alemão (1784)
Fundamentação da Metafísica dos Costumes (1785)
Crítica da Razão Prática (1788)
Crítica do Julgamento (1790)
A Religião Nos Limites da Simples Razão (1793)
A Paz Perpétua (1795)
A Metafísica dos Costumes (1797)

(fonte: https://www.ebiografia.com/immanuel_kant/)

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